Oni koji su spremni, koji imaju hrabrosti i volje, koji ne bi pravili političke kalkulacije prilikom svakog koraka, već bi radili isključivo u svrhu postizanja održivog sporazuma za obe države – poručuje Kuštrim Kolići, pozorišni i filmski reditelj, aktivista u domenu ljudskih prava i direktor NVO Integra iz Prištine, u intervjuu u okviru projekta portala Danas „Druga strana Kosova“.

  • Pitanja koja su postavili čitaoci Danasa na društvenim mrežama

Kaže se da je pozorište „duša svakog grada“. Da li to važi i za Prištinu?

– Nažalost ne. Priština je dinamičan grad koji ima jedinstvenu nit, ali je pozorišni život u globalu veoma loš. Malo je pozorišnih predstava, teatar nije u dovoljnoj meri podržan i nema stalne publike. Uglavnom, ne postoji strategija za razvoj pozorišta kao i teatarske publike. Ipak, u Prištini su nastale neke pozorišne predstave koje su dobile dobre kritike kako na lokalnom tako i na međunarodnom nivou, i privukle veliki broj gledalaca.

Postoje li nova lica na političkoj sceni koja bi mogla da doprinesu dijalogu između Beograda i Prištine?

– Političkom scenom Kosova trenutno dominiraju ličnosti koje već dugo vode ovu zemlju. Postoje neke političke grupacije koje još uvek nisu vladale na republičkom nivou. Ipak, nada i poverenje u kosovsku političku klasu na niskom su nivou, iz stotinu razloga. Verujem da u dijalogu između Beograda i Prištine treba da učestvuju i ličnosti koje nisu deo „mejnstrim“ političke scene, ali koje uživaju poštovanje u društvu; oni koji su spremni, koji imaju hrabrosti i volje, koji ne bi pravili političke kalkulacije prilikom svakog koraka, već bi radili isključivo u svrhu postizanja održivog sporazuma za obe države.

U kojoj meri su ljudska prava i prava nacionalnih manjina poštovana u Prištini?

– Ukoliko se misli samo na Prištinu, onda možemo reći da se poštuju prava manjina. Međutim, kada je u pitanju Kosovo u celini, mislim da ima mesta za veći napredak. Iako je Kosovo razvilo veoma naprednu regulativu po pitanju zaštite nacionalnih manjina, situacija na terenu još nije na odgovarajućem nivou. Još postoji mržnja između pripadnika različitih nacionalnosti, a komunikacije između različitih etničkih grupa gotovo da nema. Manjinske grupe žive izolovano, a većina rada na poboljšanju odnosa između etničkih grupa je površna. Odnose između građana različitih nacionalnosti diktiraju i kontrolišu uticajni političari. Iako je Kosovo multietnička zemlja, taj element je teško osetiti i prepoznati u svakodnevnom životu. Ključni problem je što se na multietničnost na Kosovu u suštini više gleda kao na marketinški element nego kao na vrednost na koju treba da budemo ponosni.

  • Pitanja koja su postavili novinari Danasa

Šta bi, prema Vašem mišljenju, trebalo najpre i prioritetno učiniti kako bi se odnosi Srbije i Kosova normalizovali?

– Bez sumnje, prednost treba dati pitanjima koja se odnose na nasleđe iz prošlosti, to jest na ratno nesleđe; pre svega, ratnim zločinima koje su počinile sve strane, zatim pitanju nestalih lica svih etničkih grupa kao i pitanju dokumentovanja i memorijalizacije. Za rad na ovim pitanjima mora postojati ozbiljan pristup, bez bilo kakvih kalkulacija ili oklevanja. Istovremeno, moramo uspostaviti političke institucije koje će se uzdići iznad sebe i čvrsto verovati u principe tranzicione pravde, kao i u vrednosti ispravnog suočavanja sa prošlošću. U protivnom, naša društva će i dalje biti izmanipulisana i predvođena radikalnom nacionalističkom retorikom, koja ima za cilj stalnu destabilizaciju naših zemalja.

Kako ocenjujete proces normalizacije koji trenutno vode vlasti u Prištini i Beogradu?

– Reč je o procesu koji nije doneo opipljive rezultate i koji nije dovoljno transparentan. Radi se o procesu koji nema isti krajnji cilj za obe strane u dijalogu i koji nema jasan vremenski okvir. Aktuelni proces je više doprineo „predstavi“ nego što je uticao na normalizaciju odnosa i uglavnom se koristi za unutrašnju političku upotrebu. To je proces u kome čak ni njegovi međunarodni sponzori nisu bili jasni, odlučni i dosledni. Govorimo o pregovorima u kojima su iz diskusije izostavljene najvažnije i najosetljivije teme za oba društva, poput onih koje su vezane za prošlost. Na kraju krajeva, to je proces koji uživa malo poštovanja i poverenja građana.

Da li je moguće da proces normalizacije odnosa između Kosova i Srbije okončaju političke elite koje su bile aktivne u toku sukoba devedesetih godina?

– Bilo bi fantastično kada bi do normalizacije odnosa između Kosova i Srbije dovele političke elite koje su bile aktivne tokom sukoba devedesetih godina. Smatram da bi to bila nekakva „avangarda“. Istovremeno, to bi bio dobar primer za sva ostale, kako političari koji su nekada bili u ratu sada grade održivi mir. Predstavljali bi uzor. Na osnovu ovih dvadeset godina nakon sukoba, imam svoje dileme i strahove da se ovo može dogoditi: bojim se da će političari postignuti neodrživi, nestabilan i nepošten sporazum, a da će društva i dalje ostati podeljena.

  • Pitanja koja je postavio Milan Antonijević, direktor Fondacije za otvoreno društvo
Foto: Medija centar

Da li je festival „Mirdita, dobar dan“ u Beogradu ispunio Vaša očekivanja i šta možemo da očekujemo u Prištini?

– Festival „Mirdita, dobar dan“ postao je stabilna institucija koja u ogromnoj meri ostvaruje svoje ciljeve. Osim kulturne razmene, ovaj festival se bavi i drugim važnim pitanjima vezanim za slobodu govora i kretanja, promocijom novog načina razmišljanja, kao i elaboracijom osetljivih ali bitnih pitanja za oba društva, te suočavanjem sa zaostavštinom rata. U isto vreme, ovaj festival snažno osporava nacionalističke narative, nudeći nove ideje i alternative zasnovane na dokazima, boreći se sa strahovima i predrasudama koje još uvek ima svaki pojedinac u društvu. Bez sumnje, ovaj festival je jedan od najvažnijih i najuticajnijih inicijativa u regionu koji se profilisao i stvorio viziju, i neće prestati da se održava uprkos činjenici da mu se suprotstavljaju radikalni pokreti i predstavnici. I ove godine na Kosovu, u sklopu festivala „Mirdita, dobar dan“, u različitim gradovima nastaviće da se prikazuju filmovi Bekima Fehmijua, koji su malo ili nimalo poznati kosovskoj javnosti, naročito mlađim generacijama. Takođe, biće organizovane javne debate o važnim pitanjima. Započeli smo i internu diskusiju kako bismo u narednim godinama proširili festival na još dva nivoa, koji se tiču pokretanja sopstvene produkcije festivala i prezentacije dela umetnika iz Srbije na Kosovu.

Koja su, prema Vašem mišljenju, tri prioriteta kada govorimo o manjinskim pravima?

– Pitanje je pomalo teško, ali pokušaću da sumiram; kao prvo, potrebno je stvaranje prijateljskog okruženja u lokalnim i republičkim državnim institucijama koje treba da pružaju usluge svim građanima Kosova. Drugo, stvaranje bezbednog okruženja koje će garantovati slobodu kretanja bez straha. Na kraju, potrebno je stvoriti neophodan prostor u javnosti u kome će različite manjinske grupe moći slobodno da se izražavaju na sopstvenom jeziku, na osnovu svojih kulturoloških specifičnosti.

Da li mladi ljudi vide perspektivu u regionu ili jedino u Evropi?

– Nažalost, većina mladih ljudi svoju perspektivu ne vidi u regionu. Još više zabrinjava činjenica da i oni mladi ljudi koji su se finansijski i u smislu karijere pronašli u sopstvenim zemljama takođe napuštaju region. Dakle, ne samo mladi koji su nezaposleni već i oni koji imaju finansijsku stabilnost, beže jer ne vide nadu i perspektivu u našem regionu. Ova činjenica bi trebalo da prodrma političke elite u regionu, jer mladi i pametni ljudi odlaze u Evropu ili negde drugde. S druge strane, verujem da naš region ima mnogo potencijala i mogućnosti. Problem leži u političkim „establišmentima“ koji konstantno svojim potezima „ubijaju“ nadu i „guše“ perspektive.

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ENGLISH VERSION

I believe that the part of the process of dialogue between Pristina and Belgrade should also be personalities outside of the mainstream political scene who enjoy respect in society, who are prepared, who have the courage and the will, who do not make political calculations in their every move, but work for the sole purpose of reaching a sustainable agreement for both countries, says Kustrim Kolici, the theater and film producer, human rights activist and the director of Integra NGO based in Pristina, in the interview within Danas portal project „Other Side of Kosovo“.

  • Questions posted by Danas social networks followers:

It is said that theater is „the soul of each city.“ Is it so in the case of Prishtina?

Unfortunately, it is not. Prishtina is a dynamic city and it has its unique nerve, but theater life in general is poor. There are few theater productions, the theater is not properly supported and has no stable audience. In general, there is no strategic approach to development of theater and development of theater audience. However, theater performances of high quality were produced in Prishtina, which have received positive critics locally and internationally, and have attracted massive audience.

Are there any new faces on the political scene that could contribute to the dialogue between Belgrade and Pristina?

The political scene of Kosovo is currently dominated by political figures who have been leading this country for a long time. There are some political groups that have not yet governed at national level. However, hope and trust in the Kosovar political class is low, for hundreds of reasons. I believe that the part of the process of dialogue between Pristina and Belgrade should also be personalities outside of the mainstream political scene who enjoy respect in society, who are prepared, who have the courage and the will, who do not make political calculations in their every move, but work for the sole purpose of reaching a sustainable agreement for both countries.

How much are the human rights and rights of national minorities in Pristina respected?

If it is the question only for Prishtina, then we can say that the rights of minority groups are respected. But if we are talking about Kosovo as a whole, then, I believe that there is a room for more progress. Although Kosovo has developed very advanced policies to protect national minorities, the situation in this field is not at the approriate level. There is still hatred between different nationalities, communication between citizens of different nationalities barely exists, different minority groups live isolated, most of the work on improving relationships between different ethnic groups is superficial, relations between citizens of different ethnicities are dictated and controlled by influential politicians. Although Kosovo is a multiethnic country, this element is hard to be felt or to be recognized in everyday life. My main problem in Kosovo is the fact that the value of being a multiethnic country is more like a marketing element, rather than a value that we should feel proud with.

  • Questions asked by Danas journalists:

What, in your opinion, should be prioritized first and foremost in order to normalize relations between Serbia and Kosovo?

Undoubtedly, priority should be given to issues that are related to the legacy of the past, the legacy of war. The foremost should be given to the war crimes committed by all parties, to the issue of missing persons of all ethnic groups, to the empowerment of victims of all ethnic groups, to the issue of documentation and memorialization, etc. To get on regarding these topics, there must be serious approach, without any calculations and without any hesitation. At the same time, we must have political establishments that go beyond themselves and strongly believe in the principles of transitional justice and the values of dealing properly with the past. On the contrary, our societies will continue to live manipulated and driven by radical nationalist rhetoric, which aims to maintain constant destabilization of our countries.

What do you think about the process of normalization that is currently being led by the authorities in Pristina and Belgrade? 

It is a process that has not produced tangible results, a process that is not transparent enough, a process that does not have the same final goal for both parties in the dialogue, and without clear timeline. It is a process that has produced more of the show than it has affected the normalization of relationships. It is a process that is mostly used for domestic political consumption. It is a process in which even its international sponsors have not been clear, determined and consistent. It is a process that has left out of the discussions the most important and most sensitive topics for both societies, such as the topics related to the past. And ultimately it is a process that enjoys little respect and trust from the citizens.

Is it possible that the normalization of relations between Kosovo and Serbia might be achieved by the political elites that were active during the 1990s conflicts?

It would be fantastic if the normalization of the relations between Kosovo and Serbia could be reached by political elites that were active also during the 1990s conflicts. I would consider this as something “avant-garde”. At the same time, it would be a good example for everyone else that political personalities who once were in the war now together are building sustainable peace. It would be a role model. I have my dilemmas and my fears that this can happen, based on these last 20 years after the conflict. I am afraid that these political establishments will reach an inconsistent, fragile, dishonest agreement, while the societies will remain divided.

  • Questions asked by Milan Antonijevic, director of the Open Society Foundation:

Did the festival „Mirdita, dobar dan“ in Belgrade fulfil your expectations and what can we expect in Prishtina?

The “Mirëdita, dobar dan!“ festival has now become a stable institution that is tremendously achieving its goals. Beyond the cultural exchange, this festival is addressing other important issues related to freedom of speech and movement, promotion of new mindsets and mentalities, elaboration of sensitive but important topics for both societies, dealing with legacies of the war, etc. At the same time, this festival is strongly challenging nationalistic narratives by offering new evidence-based ideas and alternatives, fighting the fears and prejudices that still exist in the society. Undoubtedly, this festival is one of the most important and influential initiatives in the region that has already created its profile and vision, and will not stop despite the fact that the festival was consistently opposed by radical movements and representatives.

Also in this year, in Kosovo, “Mirëdita, dobar dan!” festival will continue with screening of Bekim Fehmiu’s films in different cities, which are little or not known at all to the public in Kosovo, especially to the young public, followed by the organization of public debates on important topics. We have begun internal discussions to expand the festival on other two levels in years to come: 1) realizing internal productions by the festival itself, theater, film, visual arts, publications, etc. and 2) the presentation of the artistic productions of artists from Serbia to the audience of Kosovo.

What are, in your opinion, three priorities when it comes to minority rights?

It’s a bit difficult but I’m trying to sum up: 1) creating a friendly environment in local and national state institutions that should provide services to all citizens of Kosovo; 2) creating a safe environment that guarantees freedom of movement without fear; and 2) creating needed space in public where different minority groups can express themselves freely in their language, based on their cultural specificity.

Do young people have a future in the region or they have it only in Europe?

Unfortunately, most young people do not see their future in our region. Even more worrying is the fact that even young people who are established financially and in their careers in their countries are leaving the region. So, not only are the young unemployed people the ones who flee, but also young people who are financially stabe because they do not see their future and hope in the region. This fact ought to shake the political elites in the region because even local young intelligence is fleeing the region to Europe or elsewhere. Otherwise, I believe that the region has a lot of potential and opportunities. The problem lies in political establishments that are constantly „killing“ hope and „suffocating“ prospects through their actions.

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