Foto: Miloš Miljković

Svet zna šta se desilo na Balkanu prošlog veka i Srbija, pokušavajući da sebe predstavi kao žrtvu, u osnovi samu sebe čini smešnom u očima svakog ko poseduje zdrav razum – poručuje Azem Deliu, mladi kosovski pisac čija prva dva romana već imaju status bestselera, u intervjuu u sklopu projekta portala Danas „Druga strana Kosova“.

  • Pitanja koja su postavili čitaoci Danasa na društvenim mrežama

Da li su balkanski narodi isuviše opterećeni prošlošću i predrasudama?

– Naravno. Očekivao sam da ovaj intervju počne ovakvim pitanjem. Mogu da kažem da treba da zaboravimo na predrasude i prošlost, ali se bojim da je ta stvar daleko komplikovanija od toga. Ne očekujem da ljudi koji su proživeli rat mogu tek tako da izbrišu svoja sećanja. Ono što možemo da očekujemo jeste dijalog. Predrasude mogu biti prevaziđene jedino kroz dijalog.

Kako vidite život građana Kosova sada, a kako u budućnosti?

– Ne volim da stvaram iluzije. Živeti na Kosovu podrazumeva mnogo problema, ali ja sam optimista u vezi sa tim. Kosovo je mala zemlja koja je postala nezavisna pre jedne decenije. Sada smo siromašna država, ali velike nade polažem u našu mladost.

Koje autore sa Kosova biste preporučili za čitanje?

– Postoji mnogo autora sa Kosova koje volim. Teško je izabrati. Ne mogu da pomenem neka imena, jer ću žaliti zato što nisam naveo i neka druga. Ono što mogu da kažem jeste da imamo veoma mlade autore, i po godinama i po karijeri, koji prave veoma dobre korake. Srećan sam što vidim da će, po mom mišljenju, književna scena na Kosovu bivati sve bolja i bolja.

  • Pitanja koja je postavio pisac Igor Marojević
Foto: YouTube

Da li ste zadovoljni zaštitom koju vam je kosovska policija pružila nakon fizičkog napada na Vas od strane ekstremista? Da li su Vas uopšte štitili?

– Neke procedure su još u toku. Mene su saslušali i policija ih je uhapsila. Doduše, ne mogu reći da sam zadovoljan koracima koje je preduzeo pravosudni sistem. Prošlo je više od dve godine i još nisam dobio poziv od suda. To nije lična bol, već pretnja po ovo društvo.

Da li ste razmišljali o sudbinama Salmana Ruždija i Mišela Uelbeka, s obzirom na progon od strane islamskih ekstremista? Da li ste se identifikovali sa nekim od njih dvojice?

– Salman Ruždi i Mišel Uelbek su pisci koje čitam i volim. Pročitao sam većinu njihovih dela, dobar postotak onih koja su objavljena na albanskom jeziku. Mogu da kažem da je vrsta tretmana koju sam imao od strane konzervativne islamske zajednice manje-više ista. Jedina razlika je to što su oni mnogo bolji pisci od mene. Mnogo su poznatiji, tako da je njihov sukob sa islamistima privukao više pažnje. To su razlike, ali je manje-više sve isto. Slobodna misao strada širom sveta, a mi smo bili dovoljno nesrećni da osetimo gorak ukus toga.

Da li postoji interesovanje za prevođenje srpskih proznih autora na Kosovu?

– Postoji i mogu da kažem da je veće od interesovanja za prevođenje albanskih i kosovskih pisaca, koje sam video u Srbiji. Većina poznatih srpskih pisaca objavljuje se na albanskom jeziku i mogu reći da su prilično dobro distribuirani. Knjiga Saše Ilića je poslednja koju je „Qendra Multimedia“ prevela na albanski jezik.

  • Pitanja novinara Danasa

Šta bi, prema Vašem mišljenju, trebalo najpre i prioritetno učiniti kako bi se odnosi Srbije i Kosova normalizovali?

– Srbija treba da zatraži oproštaj. Srbija je zemlja koja još živi na poricanju, i to bi trebalo da se promeni, prvenstveno zbog same Srbije. Svet zna šta se desilo na Balkanu prošlog veka i Srbija, pokušavajući da sebe predstavi kao žrtvu, u osnovi samu sebe čini smešnom u očima svakog ko poseduje zdrav razum. Želim da vas podsetim da je, kada je NATO bombardovanje završeno, Milošević tvrdio da je pobedio u ratu. Svaka porodica, bez obzira na nacionalnu pripadnost, ima pravo da traži pravdu za voljenu osobu koja više nije živa zbog oružja koje se koristilo u nacionalističke svrhe. Kriminalci treba da odgovaraju za ono što su učinili. Da li su oni Srbi? Jesu li Albanci? Ili Bosanci? Nije me briga. Ali svi znamo da je Srbija krajem prošlog veka bila šampion u kriminalu.

Kako ocenjujete proces normalizacije koji trenutno vode vlasti u Prištini i Beogradu?

– To je neophodno, ali to nije jedini korak. Jedan od koraka je i ovo: šta zapravo radite kada intervjuišete albanskog pisca sa Kosova. Kultura ima svoju ulogu, obrazovanje takođe, a ključnu ulogu igra politika. Politički dijalog je veoma važan, ali to nije dovoljno.

Da li je moguće da proces normalizacije odnosa Kosova i Srbije okončaju političke elite koje su bile aktivne tokom sukoba devedesetih godina?

– Da budem iskren, ne očekujem. Ali takođe ne očekujem ni da će dijalog uskoro okončati. Ono što očekujem je da okončamo dijalog u pogledu sukoba koji je završen uz priznanje Kosova, ako bi Srbija bila dovoljno pametna. Dijalog se neće završiti jer imamo toliko pitanja o kojima treba da razgovaramo. Golim okom je vidljivo da svet nema vremena da nas čeka. Geografski smo blizu jedni drugima, tako da ćemo stalno imati kontakte. Za naše dobro potrebno je da pronađemo mirni način da ovo rešimo. U suprotnom, samo ćemo izazvati više bola.

Koja su Vaša prva sećanja na sukob na Kosovu?

– Bio sam dete. Ja sam iz Drenice, koja je bila jedno od ratnih žarišta. Moj ujak je uzeo svu decu iz porodice i otišao. Dakle, moja prva sećanja u životu su da sam ratna izbeglica u Nemačkoj. Sada, kao odrastao pisac i građanin jedne nezavisne zemlje, želim da iskoristim priliku da zahvalim Nemačkoj što nas je dočekala kada nismo bili dobrodošli u našim domovima. Balkan ima krvave uspomene. Samo kroz razumevanje možemo izbeći opasnost da tako nešto ponovimo. Znam da se ta fraza koristi prilično često, ali i dalje mislim da je istinita. Zato učimo istoriju u školama, mada bi mi na Balkanu mogli da je učimo i bolje.

ENGLISH VERSION 

* Questions posted by Danas social networks followers: 

Are the Balkans nations too much burdened by the past and prejudices?

Of course. I would expect this interview to start with the question like this one. I can say that we should just forget about the prejudices and the past, but I am afraid it is far more complicated than that. I do not expect the people who lived through the war to simply erase their memories. What we can expect is dialogue. The prejudices can only be broken down through dialogue.

How do you see the life of Kosovar citizens now and how in the future?

I do not like to create illusions. The life in Kosovo has a lot of problems, but I am optimistic about it. Kosovo is a small country and it became independent only one decade ago. We are now a poor country, but I do have high hopes, especially for our youth.

Which authors from Kosovo would you recommend to read?

There are plenty of authors from Kosovo I like. It is hard to choose. I can’t say some names because I will always regret for not saying some other names as well. What I can say, however, is that we have some young authors (pretty young in age as well as in career) who have made some very good steps. I am happy to see that the literary scene in Kosovo, in my opinion, will get better and better.

* Questions asked by writer Igor Marojević:

Are you satisfied with the protection provided by the Kosovar police after the attack on you by the extremists? Have they protected you at all?

Some procedures are still in progress. I was heard by the police and they were arrested. But I cannot say that I am satisfied with the steps the judicial system has made. More than two years passed and I have not received a subpoena yet. It is not about a personal pain, but about a threat to this society.

Have you thought about the fate of writers Salman Rushdie and Michel Houellebecq due to the threats from Islamic extremists? Did you identify yourself with any of them?

Salman Rushdie and Michel Houellebecq are both writers whose books I read and like. I read most of their works (a good percentage of which is also published in Albanian). I can say that the type of treatment I received from the conservative islamic community was more or less the same. The only difference is that they are better writers than me, I could say. They are much more famous as well, so their clash with the Islamists got more attention. These are the differences, but it is more or less the same. Freethought has been suffering all around the world and we have been unfortunate enough to try the bitter taste of it.

Is there interest in translating Serbian prose writers in Kosovo?

Yes. I can say there is much more interest in translating Serbian prose writers in Kosovo than the interest I saw in Serbia in translating Albanian prose writers either from Albania or from Kosovo. Most of the well-known Serbian writers are published in Albanian language and I can say that they are distributed pretty well. Sasha Ilic’s book is the last one I saw translated in Albanian by Qendra Multimedia. 

* Questions asked by Danas journalists:

What, in your opinion, should be prioritized first and foremost in order to normalize relations between Serbia and Kosovo? 

Serbia should ask for forgiveness. Serbia is the country that still lives in denial, and this should change, in the first place, for Serbia’s own sake. The world knows what happened in the Balkans last century, so, trying to say that Serbia was the victim, Serbia is basically making itself look ridiculous in the eyes of anyone who has common sense. I would like to remind you that, when the NATO bombing was over, Milosevic claimed he had won the war. Every family, regardless of their nationality, has the right to ask for the justice for their beloved who are not live anymore due to the guns used for the nationalistic purposes. The criminals should be called to account and punished for what they did. Are they Serbs? Are they Albanians? Are they Bosnians? I don’t mind. But we all know that at the end of last century, Serbia was a champion of crime.

What do you think about the process of normalization that is currently being led by the authorities in Pristina and Belgrade? 

It is necessary, but it is not the only step that should be taken. One of the steps that should be made is just what you are doing by interviewing an Albanian author from Kosovo. Culture plays its role, education plays its role and of course, the main role is played by the politics. Political dialogue is very important, but it is not enough.

Is it possible that the normalization of relations between Kosovo and Serbia might be achieved by the political elites that were active during the 1990s conflicts? 

To be honest, I do not expect that. But I also do not expect the dialogue to be finished any time soon. What we are expecting to be finished is the dialogue regarding the conflict which would end, if Serbia is smart enough, with recognition of Kosovo’s independence. But the dialogue will not be ended because we have so many issues to be discussed. It is visible to the naked eye that the world has no time to wait for us. We are geographically near each other, so we will have contact all the time. We should find the peaceful solution for this issue for our own good. Otherwise, we will only cause more pain.

What are your first memories of the conflict in Kosovo?

I was a little child. I am from Drenica, which was one of the hottest spots of the war. My uncle took all children of the family and left. So my first memories in this life are those of being a war refugee in Germany. Now, as an adult, a writer and a citizen of an independent country, I want to take this chance to thank Germany for welcoming us when we were not welcome in our homes. The Balkans has a bloody memory. Only through understanding it can we escape the danger of repeating it. I know this phrase is used so often, but I still think it is true. That’s why we learn history in schools, although here in the Balkans, we could do it better.

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